Titanite, also known as sphene, is a calcium titanium nesosilicate mineral with the chemical formula CaTiSiO5. It typically occurs in metamorphic and igneous rocks, particularly those of granitic and syenitic composition. Titanite is a relatively rare mineral, but it can be found in a variety of localities around the world.

The crystal structure of Titanite consists of a framework of SiO4 tetrahedra, with additional titanium cations and calcium cations occupying specific sites within the framework. This gives Titanite its characteristic brown, yellow, or green coloration, which can sometimes be quite vivid.

One of the most interesting properties of Titanite is its strong pleochroism, meaning that it can appear different colors when viewed from different directions under polarized light. This property makes Titanite a popular mineral for use in gemstones and jewelry.

In terms of its uses outside of the gemstone industry, Titanite is sometimes used as a source of titanium for industrial purposes, particularly in the production of pigments, alloys, and other materials.

Titanite is a remarkable mineral with a distinctive crystal structure and unique optical properties. While its uses may be somewhat limited, it remains an important part of the geological landscape and a popular choice among collectors and enthusiasts.

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